Hollywood-Brief History

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Hollywood-Brief History, hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California.

Hollywood-Brief History

This ethnically diverse, densely populated neighborhood is notable as the home of the U.S. film industry, including several of its historic studios, and its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the industry and the people associated with it.[the_ad_placement id=”aa12″]
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Hollywood was a small community in 1870 and was incorporated as a municipality in 1903. It was consolidated with the city of Los Angeles in 1910, and soon thereafter a prominent film industry emerged, eventually becoming the most recognizable film industry in the world

The cinema of the United States, often metonymously referred to as Hollywood, has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century. The dominant style of American cinema is classical Hollywood cinema, which developed from 1917–1960 and characterizes most films to this day.

While Auguste and Louis Lumiere are generally credited with the birth of modern cinema,  it is American cinema that soon became the most dominant force in an emerging industry.

Since the 1920s, the American film industry has grossed more money every year than that of any other country. [the_ad_placement id=”aaaa”] It produces the largest number of films of any single language with more than 800 movies churned out in language of English every year While U.K film industry (299), Canadian film industry (206), Australia and New Zealand also produce movies in the same language but are not considered part of American productions.

Hollywood was established in 1853, with a single adobe hut on land outsideLos Angeles, California. Growing crops was so successful there that by 1870, Hollywood became a thriving agricultural community.

One of its most notable historic figures was real estate tycoon, Harvey Henderson Wilcox and his wife, Daeida, who moved to Los Angeles fromTopeka, Kansas, in the 1880s. Wilcox, having lost the use of his legs from a bout with typhoid fever prior to moving out west, bought 160 acres of land west of the city, at the foothills near the Cahuenga Pass.

n 1853, one adobe hut [the_ad_placement id=”b”]stood in Nopalera (Nopal field), named for the Mexican Nopal cactus indigenous to the area.

By 1870, an agricultural community flourished. The area was known as the Cahuenga Valley, after the pass in the Santa Monica Mountains immediately to the north.

According to the diary of H. J. Whitley, known as the “Father of Hollywood,” on his honeymoon in 1886 he stood at the top of the hill looking out over the valley. Along came a Chinese man in a wagon carrying wood. The man got out of the wagon and bowed. The Chinese man was asked what he was doing and replied, “I holly-wood,” meaning ‘hauling wood.’ H. J. Whitley had an [the_ad_placement id=”ccc”]epiphany and decided to name his new town Hollywood. “Holly” would represent England and “wood” would represent his Scottish heritage. Whitley had already started over 100 towns across the western United States.

Whitley arranged to buy the 480 acres (190 ha) E.C. Hurd ranch. They agreed on a price and shook hands on the deal.

Whitley shared his plans for the new town with General Harrison Gray Otis, publisher of the Los Angeles Times, and Ivar Weid, a prominent businessman in the area.

In 1878, Eadweard Muybridge demonstrated the power of photography to capture motion. In 1894, the world’s first commercial motion picture exhibition was given in New York City,  using Thomas Edison’s Kinetoscope.

The United States was in the forefront of sound film development in the following decades. Since the early 20th century, the U.S. film industry has largely been based in and around the 30 Mile Zone in Hollywood, Los Angeles, California. Director D. W.

Griffith was central to the development of film grammar. Orson Welles’s Citizen Kane (1941) is frequently cited in critics’ polls as the greatest film of all time.

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Glen-Holly Hotel, first hotel in Hollywood, at the corner of what is now called Yucca Street. It was built in the 1890s.

Daeida Wilcox learned of the name Hollywood from Ivar Weid, her neighbor in Holly Canyon (now Lake Hollywood) and a prominent investor and friend of Whitley’s. She recommended the same name to her husband, Harvey. H. Wilcox who had purchased 120 acres on February 1, 1887.[the_ad_placement id=”nn”]

It wasn’t until August 1887 Wilcox decided to use that name and filed with the Los Angeles County Recorder’s office on a deed and parcel map of the property. The early real-estate boom busted at the end of that year.

He major film studios of Hollywood are the primary source of the most commercially successful movies, and most ticket selling moviesin the world such as The Birth of a Nation (1915), Gone with the Wind (1939), The Ten Commandments (1956), The Sound of Music(1965), Jaws (1975), Star Wars (1977), E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982), Jurassic Park (1993), Titanic (1997), The Dark Knight (2008), Avatar (2009), The Avengers (2012), Frozen (2013), and Star Wars: The Force Awakens (2015).

Furthermore, most of its highest grossing movies have generated more box office revenues and tickets outside the United States.

Today, American film studios collectively generate several hundred movies every year, making the United States one of the most prolific producers of films in the world and is the foremost leader and pioneer in motion picture engineering and technology, innovation, revolutionary, methodical and successful cinema internationally.

By 1900, the region had a post office, newspaper, hotel, and two markets. Los Angeles, with a population of 102,479 lay 10 miles (16 km) east through the vineyards, barley fields, and citrus groves. A single-track streetcar line ran down the middle of Prospect Avenue from it, but service was infrequent and the trip took two hours. The old citrus fruit-packing house was converted into a livery stable, improving transportation for the inhabitants of Hollywood.

The town’s name came from Daeida, who, while on a train trip east met a woman that described her country home in Ohio, that had been named for the Dutch settlement of Hollywood. Liking the name, Daeida christened their ranch “Hollywood,” upon her return.

On February 1, 1887, Wilcox submitted a grid map of his new town to the Los Angeles County recorder’s office. This was the first official document with the name “Hollywood” printed on it. The first street in town was named Prospect Avenue, but was later changed to Hollywood Boulevard, where city lots were carved out around dirt avenues and pepper trees. At one time, English holly was planted in the area, but it didn’t survive in the arid climate.

 

 

The intersection of Hollywood and Highland, 1907

 

Newspaper advertisement for Hollywood land sales, 1908

 

HJ Whitley is the man standing on the left wearing a bowler hat. The building at the left is the Hollywood Hotel on the corner of Highland Ave. and Hollywood Blvd.

The Hollywood Hotel was opened in 1902 by H. J. Whitley who was a president of the Los Pacific Boulevard and Development Company. Having finally acquired the Hurd ranch and subdivided it, Whitley built the hotel to attract land buyers. Flanking the west side of Highland Avenue, the structure fronted on Prospect Avenue, which, still a dusty, unpaved road, was regularly graded and graveled. The hotel was to become internationally known and was the center of the civic and social life and home of the stars for many years.

Whitley’s company developed and sold one of the early residential areas, the Ocean View Tract. Whitley did much to promote the area. He paid thousands of dollars for electric lighting, including bringing electricity and building a bank, as well as a road into the Cahuenga Pass.

The lighting ran for several blocks down Prospect Avenue. Whitley’s land was centered on Highland Avenue.   His 1918 development, Whitley Heights, was named for him.

The first recorded instance of photographs capturing and reproducing motion was a series of photographs of a running horse by Eadweard Muybridge, which he captured in Palo Alto, California, using a set of still cameras placed in a row.

Muybridge’s accomplishment led inventors everywhere to attempt to make similar devices that would capture such motion. In the United States, Thomas Edison was among the first to produce such a device, the kinetoscope.

 

The clock scene from Safety Last!(1923)

The history of cinema in the United States can trace its roots to the East Coast where, at one time, Fort Lee, New Jersey was the motion picture capital of America. The industry got its start at the end of the 19th century with the construction of Thomas Edison’s “Black Maria”, the first motion picture studio in West Orange, New Jersey.

The cities and towns on the Hudson River and Hudson Palisades offered land at costs considerably less than New York City across the river and benefited greatly as a result of the phenomenal growth of the film industry at the turn of the 20th century.

Film-making began attracting both capital and an innovative workforce, and when the Kalem Companybegan using Fort Lee in 1907 as a location for filming in the area, other filmmakers quickly followed. In 1909, a forerunner of Universal Studios, the Champion Film Company, built the first studio. They were quickly followed by others who either built new studios or who leased facilities in Fort Lee. In the 1910s and 1920s, film companies such as the Independent Moving PicturesCompany, Peerless Studios, The Solax Company, Éclair Studios, Goldwyn Picture Corporation, American Méliès (Star Films), World Film Company, Biograph Studios, Fox Film Corporation, Pathé Frères, Metro Pictures Corporation, Victor Film Company, and Selznick Pictures Corporation were all making pictures in Fort Lee. Such notables as Mary Pickford got their start at Biograph Studios.

 

In New York, the Kaufman Astoria Studios in Queens, was built during the silent film era, was used by the Marx Brothers and W.C. Fields. The Edison Studios were located in the Bronx. Chelsea, Manhattan was also frequently used. Picture City, Florida was also a planned site for a movie picture production center in the 1920s, but due to the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane, the idea collapsed and Picture City returned to its original name of Hobe Sound. Other major centers of film production also included Chicago, Texas, California, and Cuba.

 

The film patents wars of the early 20th century led to the spread of film companies across the U.S. Many worked with equipment for which they did not own the rights and thus filming in New York could be dangerous; it was close to Edison’s Company headquarters, and to agents the company set out to seize cameras. By 1912, most major film companies had set up production facilities in Southern California near or in Los Angeles because of the region’s favorable year-round weather.

 

 

 

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