Romani Gypsy- Native, Culture And History, Romani people (Roma in Romani; Țigani in Romanian) in Romania,
Gypsy, constitute one of the country’s largest minorities. According to the 2011 census, they number 621,573 people or 3.08% of the total population, being the second-largest ethnic minority in Romania after Hungarians.
Europe’s largest minority group, the Romani, migrated from northwest India 1,500 years ago, new genetic study finds.
Romani Gypsy- Native, Culture And History
The Romani, also known as the Roma, were originally dubbed “gypsies” in the 16th century, because this widely dispersed group of people were first thought to have come from Egypt. Today, many consider “gypsy” to be a derogatory term.
It is generally accepted that the migration of the Gypsies from India to Europe took place between the ninth and the fourteenth centuries, in a number of waves.
It is believed that the Gypsies arrived in Persia during the ninth century. Persian sources call them Luli or Luri; in the middle of the tenth century they are attested to under the Arab name Zott.
These names were, however, used indiscriminately for anybody coming from India. The Gypsies would have been able to reach Persia as part of population movements from the East or a Persian military expedition to India.
They stayed there for a long period of time, as demonstrated by the large number of Persian words present in the European Romany dialects. The Gypsies also must have spent a fairly long period of time in old Armenia, since the Romany dialects of Europe contain Armenian terms. From here they entered Asia Minor, thereby entering Greek language territory.
A freezing wind sweeps in across the Romanian countryside. The sweet stench of garbage catches at the back of the throat, and feral dogs chase one another over the heaps of filth.
This rubbish dump, for Claudia Greta and her family, is home, her house a ramshackle single-storey shack. Claudia, 40, is one of more than 1,500 Roma Gypsies who live in a sprawling, fetid encampment on a landfill site outside Romania’s second-largest city Cluj-Napoca.
The residents of Pata Rat – half of them are children – have been forcibly moved there over the past 15 years. Claudia opens the shack door to a room little bigger than a caravan and sighs: “Look where we live. We live on top of garbage.”
The Romani people originate from northern India, presumably from the northwestern Indian regions such as Rajasthan and Punjab.
The linguistic evidence has indisputably shown that roots of Romani language lie in India: the language has grammatical characteristics of Indian languages and shares with them a big part of the basic lexicon, for example, body parts or daily routines.
More exactly, Romani shares the basic lexicon with Hindi and Punjabi. It shares many phonetic features with Marwari, while its grammar is closest to Bengali.
Genetic findings in 2012 suggest the Romani originated in northwestern India and migrated as a group. According to a genetic study in 2012, the ancestors of present scheduled tribes and scheduled caste populations of northern India, traditionally referred to collectively as the Ḍoma, are the likely ancestral populations of modern European Roma.
In February 2016, during the International Roma Conference, the Indian Minister of External Affairs stated that the people of the Roma community were children of India. The conference ended with a recommendation to the Government of India to recognize the Roma community spread across 30 countries as a part of the Indian diaspora.
Romanian society harbours one of the worst cases of social stigma in Europe. The direct result is the reluctance and, in most cases, refusal of important public personalities of Romani origin to declare their membership or links to Romania’s Romani minority.
Important Romani members of the Romanian government, writers, professors, doctors, sports celebrities and singers refuse or avoid discussions targeting their origins, afraid of the likely consequences: exclusion from social life, scapegoating or the decline or end of their careers.
Even the few Romani politicians elected to represent Romani communities often criticise or insult those communities, in an effort to distance themselves from ordinary Roma and to show the majority that they belong to “high society.” Roma (Gypsies) originated in the Punjab region of northern India as a nomadic people and entered Europe between the eighth and tenth centuries C.E.
They were called “Gypsies” because Europeans mistakenly believed they came from Egypt. This minority is made up of distinct groups called “tribes” or “nations.”
Most of the Roma in Germany and the countries occupied by Germany during World War II belonged to the Sinti and Roma family groupings. Both groups spoke dialects of a common language called Romani, based on Sanskrit (the classical language of India).
The term “Roma” has come to include both the Sinti and Roma groupings, though some Roma prefer being known as “Gypsies.” Some Roma are Christian and some are Muslim, having converted during the course of their migrations through Persia, Asia Minor, and the Balkans.
Europe is home to 10–12 million Roma and Travellers, yet many Europeans are unable to answer the basic question, “Who are the Roma?” Even fewer can answer questions about their history.
It is a complex and highly contested narrative, partly because the “Roma” are not a single, homogeneous group of people.
They can include Romanichals in England; Kalé in Wales and Finland; Travellers in Ireland (who are not Roma), Scotland, Sweden, and Norway; Manouche from France; Gitano from Spain; Sinti from Germany, Poland, Austria, and Italy; Ashakli from Kosovo; Egyptians from Albania; Beyash from Croatia; Romanlar from Turkey; Domari from Palestine and Egypt; Lom from Armenia, and many others.
It is also partly because many of these groups have differing narratives of their history and ethnogenesis (their origins as an ethnic group).
Some interesting facts:
Their names are as diverse as their populations are widespread: Often called the Roma or the Romani people, this minority group is also known as gitanos in Spain, as gitan in France, as Tsingani in Central and Eastern Europe, and by several names across Scandinavia that translate as “Travelers.
” Roma also refer to themselves by various names: Kale in Finland and Portugal, Manush in France, and Sinti in Germany and Eastern Europe.
Linguistic analysis suggests that the Roma are originally a Hindi people from northern India.
After leaving northern India, most Romani went to Europe: In some Eastern European countries, such as Romania and Bulgaria.
According to the 2002 census, 81.9% of Roma are Orthodox Christians, 6.4% Pentecostals, 3.8% Roman Catholics, 3% Reformed, 1.1% Greek Catholics, 0.9% Baptists, 0.8% Seventh-Day Adventists, while the rest belong to other religions such as (Islam and Lutheranism)
Early age marriage scandal.
Some True Facts:
On September 27, 2003, Ana Maria Cioabă, the 12-year-old daughter of Florin Cioabă (the so-called “King of the Gypsies”) was forced to marry Mihai Birita, a 15-year-old boy. Since both were below Romania’s legal age of marriage (set at 18), no official marriage ceremony was performed. Ana Maria Cioabă fled from the wedding, but her father brought her back and she was forcibly married. Particularly controversial was the fact that the groom showed the wedding guests a bloodied bed sheet to prove that the marriage had been consummated; in Romania, the age of consent is 15 years old, so sexual contact with the 12-year-old girl was illegal under Romanian law. A friend of girl’s, Ms Dana Chendea, said, She told me it was the worst thing that ever happened to her. She felt like a huge rock fell on her.
Emma, Baroness Nicholson, the European Parliament rapporteur for Romania, said that it was a rape and the child must be given over to foster care. Subsequently, the Romanian authorities decided that Ana-Maria Cioabă and Mihai Birita must live separately and must not have any sexual relationships until the legal age of marriage. Ana-Maria was not, however, sent to foster care.
Doru-Viorel Ursu, a former Romanian Minister of the Interior (1990–1991), was the godfather of the young bride.
Florin Cioabă said that he believes that there should not be marriages between Romani children any more, but he argued that traditions that are hundreds of years old cannot be changed overnight.
The median age at which Romani girls first marry is 19. LanguageRoma originate from India and by the 8th century had begun their long trek to Europe, via Mesopotamia and the near-east. They were probably living in Greece by 1200. They speak a language closely related to Sanskrit.